Steilacoom Tribe Government
Since the time of the Medicine Creek Treaty in 1854, the Steilacoom Tribe has used traditional methods to face the multitude of obstacles that they have encountered. The efforts of our People have produced an unbroken line of Leadership that has held our Tribe together, even without a Reservation.
Traditionally each Steilacoom Band had a Headman. The position was hereditary, being passed from father to son; except when special circumstances would require the ruling family to identify another successor. Whomever the Family selected was subject to the approval of the band membership. Subchiefs, generally brothers or cousins of the Headman, aided him in accomplishing organizational tasks for their band. There was no overall Chief of the entire Steilacoom Tribe; although, the Headman of the main village on Chambers Creek generally had more prestige and influence than the others.
Below you will find a chronological timeline of the Headman, post Medicine Creek Treaty.
Joan Ortez (back center, standing) along with the Steilacoom Tribal Council at the head table. ca. 1980s. Steilacoom Town Hall.
Joan Ortez (center, standing) along with the Steilacoom Tribal Council at the head table. ca. 1980s. Steilacoom Town Hall.
1848 | Sam Young
Sam Young, the Steilacoom Band Headman, displays his political talents at an intertribal council, successfully arguing against Snoqualmie Chief Patkanim's proposal to kill all British and Americans in the Puget Sound area.
1856 | Sam Young
Sam Young is elected as Chief of the entire Steilacoom Tribe, in an effort to centralize political authority for negotioations with the Americans. The following year, Young represents the Steilacoom Tribe in negotiating with Governor Stevens.
ca. 1878 | John Steilacoom
Sam Young retires as Tribal Headman at almost 80 years of age. Since none of his sons remain in the Steilacoom Tribe, the position is passed on to John Steilacoom, the son of a pre-treaty Headman and a relative of Sam Young's.
1906 | Descendants of Betsy Latour
John Steilacoom dies. His eight year old son cannot assume the role of Headman. While his family waits to put forward someone else as the new Tribal Leader, descendants of Betsy Latour (a cousin of John Steilacoom's mother) keep the Tribe functioning, acting as subchiefs.
ca. 1914 | Joseph McKay
Joseph McKay, a nephew of John Steilacoom, assumes the Leadership role of the Tribe.
1929 | Descendants of Betsy Latour
Joseph McKay resigns to join the Puyallup Tribe and share in judgement funds. Again, descendants of Betsy Latour take over the main Leadership positions of the Tribe.
ca. 1939 | William Bertschy
Tribal Leader William Bertschy (a Latour descendant) is told by his employer, the United States Navy, that he cannot be in Tribal politics and keep his job. He chooses to step down from Leadership to pursue his job.
1940 | Joe Eskew
Lou Andrews (William Bertschy's cousin, descendant of Betsy Latour) selects Joe Eskew as the Family's choice for successor. Joe Eskew is an unenrolled Lummi with administrative skills. One year later Eskew is ousted by the general membership after his leftist leanings are discovered. Lou Andrews and others conduct Tribal business during the war years and beyond while seeking a replacement.
1951 | Louis Layton
The Andrews Family proposes Louis Layton, an unenrolled Colville, as the new Steilacoom Tribal Leader. He is accepted by vote of the general membership. Layton proves to be an excellent choice and is considered by some outside observes to be the "best chairman on Puget Sound." In 1974 the Steilacoom Tribal Leadership chooses to apply for and acquire a non-profit organization for the Steilacoom Tribal People.
1975 | Joan Marshall
Louis Layton steps down from the Tribal Leader role. He and the Andrews family select Lou Andrews' niece, Joan (Edwards) Marshall, to be his successor. When the Steilacoom Tribal Museum opens in 1988, she still holds the position, now Joan Ortez. In 2006 Joan passes away at the age of 70.
2006 | Danny Marshall
Danny Marshall, son of Joan Ortez, is voted in as Tribal Chairperson of the Steilacoom Tribe. He continues to hold this position today.